Casey Barton Behravesh

Nicholas H . Gaffga, M.D., M.P.H., Casey Barton Behravesh, D.V.M., Dr.P.H., Paul J. Ettestad, D.V.M., Chad B. Smelser, M.D., Andrew R. Rhorer, M.S., Alicia B. Cronquist, R.N., M.P.H., Nicole A. Comstock, M.S.P.H., Sally A. Bidol, M.P.H., Nehal J. Patel, M.P.H., Peter Gerner-Smidt, M.D., D.Med.Sci., William E. Keene, Ph.D., M.P.H., Thomas M. Gomez, D.V.M., Brett A. Hopkins, D.V.M., Ph.D., Mark J. Sotir, Ph.D., M.P.H., and Frederick J. Angulo, D.V.M., Ph.D.: Outbreak of Salmonellosis Associated with Live Poultry from a Mail-Order Hatchery Nontyphoidal salmonella infections are connected with significant morbidity and mortality in the United States, with an estimated 1 million illnesses, 19,000 hospitalizations, and 370 deaths annually occurring.1 Although the majority of these infections are foodborne, salmonellosis may also be acquired through contact with animals, including live poultry .2-8 Poultry can become infected with salmonella through comingling with infected birds from different sources, vertical transmission from infected hens, or contaminated feed.9 Live poultry infected with salmonella typically appear intermittently healthy but can shed bacteria, producing the sampling of individual birds an unreliable way to determine whether birds are holding or shedding bacteria .

When the end point includes a subjective component, it is particularly essential that participants and end result assessors be unaware of the study-group assignments. From the perspective of the average person patient, benefits must be balanced against the bigger prices of clinically relevant undesireable effects and the need for additional surgery. In our trial, almost 5 percent of the women in the sham group underwent a sling process in the first 12 months after prolapse-repair surgery. In contrast, surgery to remove the sling was needed in only 2.4 percent of women in the sling group. Findings in the patient-choice cohort were remarkably consistent with those in the randomized cohort, suggesting that nonparticipation bias had a minimal effect on the study findings probably.